Mozzi  version v1.1.0
sound synthesis library for Arduino

This is an example demonstrating the OverSample class.

Example of oversampling analog input from a thermistor
for increased resolution. It's a basic attempt at a biofeedback
device used as an ineffective treatment for migraines. The idea
is that if you can focus on making your hands warm, increased blood
flow to the extremities is associated with a reduced stress response.
Anyway, the bleeps sweep up if the temperature increases, down for decrease,
and level for no change. The tremelo rate increases with the temperature.
Using Mozzi sonification library.
Demonstrates OverSample object.
The circuit:
Audio output on digital pin 9 on a Uno or similar, or
DAC/A14 on Teensy 3.1, or
check the README or
Temperature dependent resistor (Thermistor) and 5.1k resistor on analog pin 1:
Thermistor from analog pin to +5V (3.3V on Teensy 3.1)
5.1k resistor from analog pin to ground
Mozzi documentation/API
Mozzi help/discussion/announcements:!forum/mozzi-users
Tim Barrass 2013, CC by-nc-sa.
#include <MozziGuts.h>
#include <Oscil.h> // oscillator template
#include <Line.h>
#include <tables/sin2048_int8.h> // SINe table for oscillator
#include <OverSample.h>
#include <ControlDelay.h>
// use: Oscil <table_size, update_rate> oscilName (wavetable)
Oscil <SIN2048_NUM_CELLS, AUDIO_RATE> aTremelo(SIN2048_DATA);
Oscil <SIN2048_NUM_CELLS, AUDIO_RATE> aEnvelope(SIN2048_DATA);
Line <float> freqLine;
OverSample <unsigned int, 3> overSampler; // will give 10+3=13 bits resolution, 0->8191, using 128 bytes
const byte INPUT_PIN = 1;
const byte LINE_LENGTH = (byte)((float)CONTROL_RATE*ENVELOPE_DURATION*0.5); // 0.5 seconds per line
// adjustments to get tremelo in useful range from oversampled temperature input
const int TREMOLO_OFFSET = 4000;
const float TREMOLO_SCALE = 0.002;
void setup(){
//Serial.begin(9600); // for Teensy 3.1, beware printout can cause glitches
void updateControl(){
float start_freq, end_freq;
static int counter, old_oversampled;
// read the variable resistor
int sensor_value = mozziAnalogRead(INPUT_PIN); // value is 0-1023
// get the next oversampled sensor value
int oversampled =;
// modulate the amplitude of the sound in proportion to the magnitude of the oversampled sensor
float tremeloRate = TREMOLO_SCALE*(oversampled-TREMOLO_OFFSET);
tremeloRate = tremeloRate*tremeloRate*tremeloRate*tremeloRate*tremeloRate;
// every half second
if (--counter<0){
if (oversampled>old_oversampled){ // high tweet up if temp rose
start_freq = 550.f;
end_freq = 660.f;
}else if(oversampled<old_oversampled){ // low tweet down if temp fell
start_freq = 330.f;
end_freq = 220.f;
} else { // flat beep if no change
start_freq = 440.f;
end_freq = 440.f;
old_oversampled = oversampled;
counter = LINE_LENGTH-1; // reset counter
// set the line to change the main frequency
// print out for debugging
// update the main frequency of the sound
AudioOutput_t updateAudio(){
return MonoOutput::from16Bit((((int)*(>>8)*;
void loop(){
audioHook(); // required here